We have had other modern societies but it wasn't the many ice ages that the earth has been through that caused this to happen. Modern societies can endure an ice age if they manage to "survive modern technology". Even primitive societies can survive ice ages as well as the many other changes that the earth goes through during the four major 12,000 year cycles.
Not only have we had societies that were as modern as we are today but we have also had a few societies that have become advanced societies. Advanced societies, have discovered technology that allows them extreme longevity of life, extremely advanced computers and "other dimensional science". Many of these people are still with us today. It's a very long story but advanced societies live way underground. This is a natural societal evolution!
So, to your answer your question, it is not the various changes that the earth goes through that causes man to become once again primitive but modern technology. You don't have to be a prophet to see that weaponry will eventually become so powerful, so easily hidden and so easily obtained in the future. It is not climate but terrorism that will force some of us to become primitive once again, there is an opportunity this cycle as there have been in the past where others will become advanced and they will move underground for safety. The rest of us will just have to fend for ourselves. I'm not saying this is going to happen anytime soon-it could be a while.